Ancestral Pueblo: Greater MogollonJornada MogollonNorthern Jornada (Sierra Blanca)Three Rivers Red WareSan Andres (Broadline) Red-on- brown/terracotta

Type Name: San Andres (Broadline) Red-on- brown/terracotta

Period: 750 A.D. - 1150 A.D.
Culture: Ancestral Pueblo: Greater Mogollon
Branch: Jornada Mogollon
Tradition: Northern Jornada (Sierra Blanca)
Ware: Three Rivers Red Ware

First posted by C. Dean Wilson 2012

The earliest version of red painted pottery in the Jornada region was referred to by Mera (1943) as Broad-line Red-on Terracotta (Mera 1943) and simply as Red-on-brown by Jennings (1940) and forms the basis for the combination terminology suggested here. Broadline Terracotta/Red-on-brown as defined here refers to the earliest decorated forms clearly produced in the Northern Jornada region, and appears to reflect a range of forms transitional between Mogollon Red-on-brown and Three Rivers Red-on-terracotta (Mera 1943; Wiseman 2014). Mera and Stalling (1931) noted the existence of a red-on-terracotta pottery with wide line designs that they thought may have developed into Three Rivers Red-on-terracotta. San Andres Red-on-terracotta was defined by McCluney (1962). This type seems to have been orginally attributed to forms of red-on-terracotta pottery postulated to have been slightly earlier as well as contempranous to Three Rivers Red-on-teracotta, or from about A.D. 1050 to 1300 (McCluney 1961). Early forms of red-on-terracotta pottery produced in the Jornada regions are thought by some to have been decorated with wide lines, that may represent a early version of Three Rivers Red-on Terracotta (McCluney 1961). Similarities in the feldspar temper between early forms of Jornada Brown and red-on-brown pottery from the same sites resulted in the inclusions of pottery assumed under this category in Three Rivers Red Ware of the Northern Jornada Mogollon tradition.

Styles and other characteristics described for Three Rivers Red-on-terracotta are distinct to those noted in the red painted brown wares that occur in low frequencies in contexts clearly dating before the production of other Three Rivers tradition painted types. Styles and executions noted in in earlier forms of pottery assigned are similar to that noted on the earliest decorated pottery from the Mogollon region assigned to Mogollon Red-on-brown and San Lorenzo Red-on-brown (Haury 1936). Mera (1943) noted that the broad-line type most likely developed directly out of Mimbres Red-on-brown with indications of a gradation into Three Rivers Red-on-terracotta. He also noted that some examples examples of this form may have been contemporaneous with Three Rivers Red-on-terracotta (Mera and Stallings 1931). Thus, it has been suggested that all examples of Broadline or San Andres Red-on-terracotta identified may not necessarily reflect the early stage of the Three Rives Red Ware developmental sequence, but instead a variation in the range of Three Rivers Red-on-terracotta (Wiseman 2002). It appears, however, that the Broadline form first appeared during the earliest periods associated with decorated wares, after which later forms assigned to San Andres Red-on-terracotta continued to be made along with Three Rivers Red-on-terracotta, and even later with Lincoln Black-on-red. Pottery assigned to this type tends to exhibit a series of wide parallel lines against a brown to terracotta polished surface. Based on investigations at the Hatchet site, McCluney (1961; 1962) placed pottery with wide lines between 5 and 8 mm into San Andres Red-on terracotta. These lines are usually executed fairly crudely and began just under the rim. These wide lines radiate downward and terminate above bottom of a vessel. Joining of the lines may occur below the rim to produce triangle or diamond shapes. The lines are executed in deep red clay similar to that noted in early red wares such as Jornada Red Slipped, and assumed the two types are closely related. Forms include both bowls and jars. The date given for this type here is 750 to 1150 and is based on the proposed span on types that would be transitional between Mogollon Red-on-brown and Three Rivers Red-on Terracotta. Currently the sites so far identified as clearly containing this type all seem to date the late ninth to tenth century based on the presence of intrusive pottery which include Red Mesa Black-on-white and Mangus Black-on-white from sites on Chupadero Mesa. Other sites described as containing such pottery are those associated with the Tajo phase of the Rio Abajo which is postulated to largely date the tenth century (Marshall and Wait 1984).

Haury, Emil W.
1936 Some Southwestern Pottery Types. Medallion Papers No. 19, Gila Pueblo, Globe, Arizona.

Jennings, Jesse D.
1940 A Variation of Southwestern Pueblo Culture. Technical Series Bulletin No. 19. Laboratory of Anthropology, Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe.

Marshall, Michael P., and Henry J. Walt
1984 Rio Abajo: Prehistory and History of a Rio Grande Province. New Mexico Historic Preservation Program, Santa Fe.

McCluney, Eugene

1961 The Hatchet Site: A Preliminary Report. Southwestern Lore 26(4).

1962 New Name and Revised Description for a Mogollon Pottery Type from Souhern New Nexico. Southwestern Lore 27 (4):49-55.

Mera, Harry .P.
1943 An Outline of Ceramic Development in Southern and Southeastern New Mexico. Technical Series Bulletin No. 22. Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe.

Mera, H. P., and W. S. Stallings
1931 Lincoln Back-on-red. Laboratory of Anthropology Technical Series, Bulletin No. 2. Santa Fe.

Wiseman, Regge N.

2002 The Fox Place: A Late Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Pithouse Village neare Roswell, New Mexico. Office of Archaeological Studies Archaeology Notes 234, Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe.

2014 Introduction to Mera’s “Lincoln Black-on-red". In Since Mera: The Original Eleven Bulletins, With Essays and Opinions Derived from Recent Research, edited by E. J Brown, R. N. Wiseman and Rory P. Gauthier, pp 37-40. Archaeological Society of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

Related Photos

San Andres (Broadline) Red-on-terracotta bowl sherd

San Andres (Broadline) Red-on-terracotta bowl sherd

San Andres (Broadline) Red-on-teracotta seed jar

Jornada (Broadline) Red-on-terracotta jar sherds

Wide Line Red-on-terracotta seed jar

San Andres (Broadline) Red-on-terracotta bowl sherd

San Andres Red-on-terracotta bowl sherds