Ancestral Pueblo: Greater Upper Rio Grande ValleySouthern Rio GrandeMiddle Rio GrandeMiddle-Southern Rio Grande Glaze WareSan Lazaro Glaze Polychrome

Type Name: San Lazaro Glaze Polychrome

Period: 1475 A.D. - 1525 A.D.
Culture: Ancestral Pueblo: Greater Upper Rio Grande Valley
Branch: Southern Rio Grande
Tradition: Middle Rio Grande
Ware: Middle-Southern Rio Grande Glaze Ware

First posted by C. Dean Wilson 2012

San Lazaro Glaze-Polychrome was defined by Mera (1933). Bowls assigned to this type are differentiated from earlier glaze ware bowl forms by an extension of the area of vessel wall that was widened (Franklin 1997; Mera 1933; Morales 1997; Warren 1979; Warren and Snow 1976). This type is poorly dated but appears to have been produced during the late fifteenth to early sixteenth century. The area of production of San Lazaro Glaze Polychrome may have been largely been limited to the Galisteo Basin and included Tonque, San Cristobal, San Marcos and San Lazaro (Warren 1970).

The upper portion of the rim exhibits a slightly widened profile that spans from about the upper quarter or third of the vessel. The upper portions of bowls tend to be deep and straight exhibiting an everted rim and a rounded base. The inside surface of the bowl is slightly convex, while the exterior is straight or slightly recurved. The profile above the shift in slope is wider than the lower portion. The rounded and tapered rim and narrowing toward the angled transition created an elongated elliptical profile for the upper portion of the bowl profile. San Lazaro Glaze Polychrome bowls tend to be polished on both sides. Vessels are often slipped and decorated with glaze and matte pigment on both surfaces. A general shift from lighter to redder slips is reflected, and although an occasional white or pink slip is represented, both the interior and exterior slip tends to be a tan, orange, or red color.

For the first time, a slight majority of bowl interiors are decorated with all-over designs. These all-over designs, however, usual emerged from openings in a banded area which is filled with red slip but without painted decorations. The open areas either emerged from a single or two distinct bold and merging panels that often join and intersect at an angle. Designs within these units are sparsely but boldly executed. While some banded designs are similar to those noted in earlier types, there is much more variety. The banded area is sometimes but not always divided into panels. Flaming lines commonly include double lines filled with red matte paint with open spaces often forming detached areas between bands. Design elements commonly occur on the bowl exterior jars and include ticks, oblique lines, dashes, crosses, zigzag lines, triangles and step triangles, key figures, but stylized birds, captains, and anthromorph designs are particular common, and often represent the focus of the design. Exterior decorations are similar to those noted on early forms but tend to be more varied and elaborate. As is the case for earlier forms they tend to be outlined with dark glaze paint and filled with red matte paint.

Franklin, Hayward
1997 Valencia Pueblo Ceramics. In Excavations at Valencia Pueblo (LA 953) and a Nearby Hispanic Settlement (LA 67321), Valencia County, New Mexico. edited by K.L. Brown and B.J. Vierra, pp 125-257. Office of Contract Archaeology Report No. 185-400F, Albuquerque.

Mera, H. P.
1933 A Proposed Revision of the Rio Grande Glaze Paint Sequence. Laboratory of Anthropology Technical Series Bulletin No. 5. Santa Fe.

Morales, Thomas M.
1997 Glazeware Pottery Production and Distribution in the Upper-Middle Rio Grande Valley. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

Warren, A. Helene
1979 The Glaze Wares of the Upper Middle Rio Grande. In Archaeological Investigations in Cochiti Reservoir, New Mexico, Vol. 4: Adaptive Changes in the Northern Rio Grande Valley, edited by J. V. Biella and R. C. Chapman, pp. 187–216. Office of Contract Archaeology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

Warren, A., Helene and David H. Snow
1976 Section C: Formal Descriptions of Rio Grande Glazes from LA 70. In Archaeological Excavations at Pueblo del Encierro, LA 70, Cochiti Dam Salvage Project, Cochiti New Mexico, Final Report: 1964-1965 Field Seasons, edited by D. H. Snow, pp. C1-C34. Laboratory of Anthropology Notes No. 78, Santa Fe.

Related Photos

San Lazaro Glaze Polychrome bowl sherd

San Lazaro Glaze Polychrome bowl sherd (exterior surface)

San Lazaro Glaze Polychrome bowl

San Lazaro Glaze Polychrome bowl

San Lazaro Glaze Polychrome bowl

San Lazaro Glaze Polychrome bowl

San Lazaro Glaze Polychrome bowl