Ancestral Pueblo: Greater Upper Rio Grande ValleySouthern Rio GrandeMiddle Rio GrandeMiddle-Southern Rio Grande Glaze WareLargo Glaze-on-Yellow-Red-Polychrome

Type Name: Largo Glaze-on-Yellow-Red-Polychrome

Period: 1400 A.D. - 1450 A.D.
Culture: Ancestral Pueblo: Greater Upper Rio Grande Valley
Branch: Southern Rio Grande
Tradition: Middle Rio Grande
Ware: Middle-Southern Rio Grande Glaze Ware

First posted by C. Dean Wilson 2013

The Largo (Glaze B) types originally assigned to Largo Glaze-on-yellow and Largo Glaze Polychrome by Mera (1933). This type refers to a range of bowl rim forms associated with a short period of production of glaze ware bowls. Forms assigned to this group are transitional between earlier straight (Glaze A) and later rim forms exhibiting variation in widening near the upper portion of the bowl (Mera 1933). Largo or Glaze B rim forms are similar to those noted for early Glaze A form except for a very short thickened area toward the end of the rim (Franklin 1997; Mera 1933; Morales 1997; Warren and Snow 1976).

While the range of glaze ware bowl forms displaying different slips are usually described as distinct Largo types, given such forms appear to exhibit similar decorations and were contemporaneous, the discussion and description of each of these are included together. Glaze paint is usually brown to black. The glaze is thicker more lustrous, and design executions tends to be poorer in quality than the glaze pigment commonly occurring on earlier Glaze A types. Glaze pigments tend to be thinner and less runny than examples in later Glaze types. Pastes tend to be fine and are commonly reddish with occasional dark cores. Tempers are usually represented by crushed igneous rock indicative of specialized production particularly within the Galisteo Basin. Forms that would now be placed into Largo Glaze varieties seem to have been initially referred to as a "degenerate form" of Glaze A on Red or Yellow, because of the poorer quality of the slip and glaze paint, and as Glaze II (Kidder and Shepard 1936). Designs are similar to those noted on Glaze A types.

Bowl interiors are almost exclusively decorated by banded designs, bordered by a narrow framing line that began just below the rim. Framing lines are common, but not always broken into an open space. Designs are almost always organized into rectangular panels which are usually separated from each other by broad spaces between single lines that are incorporated into the panel. These are usually organized across the vessel into four panels that consist of two pairs of alternating and somewhat related design combinations. Elements included in these panels include dots, ticks, lines, pendant triangles, keys, and birds. Rims are usually undecorated. Exterior designs include both simple arrangements, such as two pairs of dashes, crosses, and "X"s. More complicated designs are usually filled with red space and will be included with discussions of Largo Polychrome. Bowl forms and size ranges are variable and similar to those noted for Glaze a types. Largo Glaze-on-red is distinguished by the presence of a dark red to reddish orange slip. This is the rarest Glaze B type and was not included in descriptions by Mera (1933). This may indicate the short and transitional nature of slipped red forms as reflected by slightly less widening relative to other Largo types (Morales 1997). Largo Glaze-on-yellow is the most common Glaze B type and refers to bowls in which all of the interior and the upper exteriors are slipped with a yellow, cream, light gray, light gray, tan, to light orange slip. Largo Glaze Polychrome seems to be identical to Largo Glaze-on-yellow except for the inclusion of motifs that are filled red matte paint. It is most commonly reflected by the occurrence of glaze outlined figures filled with red pigment just below the exterior of a bowl rim. These include long linear doubles ended enclosed lines that end in step triangles as well as stylized birds. These may occur as isolated figures or may be incorporated into a larger connected band.

All the Largo Glaze types seem to be contemporaneous, and are still poorly dated, but estimated to have been produced from A. D. 1400-1450 (Warren 1979). Largo Glaze varieties are largely restricted to sites north of Albuquerque and temper distributions indicate specialized production and the wide-spread distributions of vessels manufactured at villages in the Galisteo Basin (Mera 1940; Morales 1997; Schleher 2010; Shepard 1942).

Franklin, Hayward
1997 Valencia Pueblo Ceramics. In Excavations at Valencia Pueblo (LA 953) and a Nearby Hispanic Settlement (LA 67321), Valencia County, New Mexico. edited by K.L. Brown and B.J. Vierra, pp 125-257. Office of Contract Archaeology Report No. 185-400F, Albuquerque.

Kidder, Alfred V., and Anna O. Sherpard
1936 The Pottery of Pecos, Volume II Glaze Paint, Culinary, and Other Wares. Papers of the Phillips Academy No.7, New Haven.

Mera, H. P.

1933 A Proposed Revision of the Rio Grande Glaze Paint Sequence. Laboratory of Anthropology Technical Series Bulletin No. 5. Santa Fe.

1940 Population Changes in the Rio Grande Glaze-Paint Area. Laboratory of Anthropology Technical Series Bulletin No. 11. Santa Fe.

Morales, Thomas M.
1997 Glazeware Pottery Production and Distributionin the Upper-Middle Rio Grande Valley. Ph.D. dissertation, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

Schleher, Kari L.
2010 Ceramic Production at San Marcos Pueblo New Mexico. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

Shepard, Anna O.
1942 Rio Grande Glaze Paint Ware: A Study Illustrating the Place of Ceramic Technological Analysis in Archaeological Research. Contributions to American Anthropology and History No. 39. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. 528. Washington D.C.

Warren, A. Helene

1979 The Glaze Wares of the Upper Middle Rio Grande. In Archaeological Investigations in Cochiti Reservoir, New Mexico, Vol. 4: Adaptive Changes in the Northern Rio Grande Valley, edited by J. V. Biella and R. C. Chapman, pp. 187–216. Office of Contract Archaeology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

Warren, A., Helene and David H. Snow
1976 Section C: Formal Descriptions of Rio Grande Glazes from LA 70. In Archaeological Excavations at Pueblo del Encierro, LA 70, Cochiti Dam Salvage Project, Cochiti New Mexico, Final Report: 1964-1965 Field Seasons, edited by D. H. Snow, pp. C1-C34. Laboratory of Anthropology Notes No. 78, Santa Fe.

Related Photos

Largo Glaze-on-red bowl sherds

Largo Glaze Polychrome bowl

Largo Glaze Polychrome bowl

Largo Glaze Polychrome bowl

Largo Glaze Polychrome bowl