Ancestral Pueblo: Greater MogollonGreater SaladoUpper Gila (Highland Salado)Roosevelt Red (Salado Polychrome) WareTonto Polychrome

Type Name: Tonto Polychrome

Period: 1300 A.D. - 1450 A.D.
Culture: Ancestral Pueblo: Greater Mogollon
Branch: Greater Salado
Tradition: Upper Gila (Highland Salado)
Ware: Roosevelt Red (Salado Polychrome) Ware

First posted by C. Dean Wilson 2014

Tonto Polychrome was defined by Gladwin and Gladwin (1930). This type exhibits treatments and styles similar to those noted for Gila Polychrome, but is differentiated from this type by incorporation of designs in red pigment on jar and bowl exteriors (Crown 1994; Lindauer 1994; Wilson 1998; Young 1982).

Designs on Tonto Polychrome incorporate red slip into exterior designs. In contrast to the broad black-on-buff bands characteristic of other Salado Polychrome types, segments of black-on-buff designs are surrounded by large red slipped areas. The black organic band and red slip noted in Tonto Polychrome is similar to that noted in Gila Polychrome. Designs are bold and usually lack hatching. The dating of Tonto Polychrome appears to be similar to that noted for Gila Polychrome, although some contexts have yielded assemblages with Gila Polychrome but without Tonto Polychrome, all assemblages from which Tonto Polychrome have been recovered also contain Gila Polychrome, and suggest a slightly later beginning date for Tonto Polychrome. This may indicate that vessels assigned to Tonto Polychrome were produced sometime after A.D. 1350 but before A.D. 1450.

Crown, Patricia L.
1994 Ceramics and Ideology: Salado Polychrome Pottery. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Gladwin, Winifred and Harold S. Gladwin
1930 Some Southwestern Pottery Types: Series II. Medallion Papers No. 7, Gila Pueblo, Globe.

Lindauer, Owen
1994 Systematics of Decorated Wares. In Archaeology of the Salado in the Livingston Mound Study part 2. edited by Jacobs, pp 635-646. Arizona State University, Office of Cultural Resource Management, Anthropological Field Series 32, Tucson.

Wilson, C. Dean
1998 Ormand Ceramic Analysis Part I: Methodology and Categories. In The Ormand Village: Final Report on the 1965-1966 Excavation, by L.T. Wallace, pp 195-252, Office of Archaeological Studies Archaeology Notes 229, Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe.

Young, Jon Nathan
1982 Salado Polychrome Pottery. In Collected Papers in Honor of John W. Runyan, edited by G. Fitzgerald, pp. 31-57. Papers of the Archaeological Society of New Mexico. Albuquerque Archaeological Society Press, Albuquerque.

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Tonto Polychrome jar

Tonto Polychrome jar

Tonto Polychrome bowl

Tonto Polychrome jar

Tonto Polychrome jar