Ancestral Pueblo: Greater Upper Rio Grande ValleySouthern Rio GrandeMiddle Rio GrandeMiddle Rio Grande White WareGalisteo Black-on-white

Type Name: Galisteo Black-on-white

Period: 1220 A.D. - 1450 A.D.
Culture: Ancestral Pueblo: Greater Upper Rio Grande Valley
Branch: Southern Rio Grande
Tradition: Middle Rio Grande
Ware: Middle Rio Grande White Ware


First posted by C. Dean Wilson 2012

Galisteo Black-on-white was defined by Mera (1935) to describe forms originally described as “Crackled Type” (Kidder and Amsden 1931). This type is usually differentiated from Santa Fe Black-on-white by the presence of light gray to white and relatively coarse pastes with added sherd, or rock or sand with sherd temper (Barkwill and Cohen 2011; Stubbs and Stallings 1953; G Wilson 2007; D Wilson 2008; 2011).

Characteristics associated with Galisteo Black-on-white have long been cited as evidence of long-distant migration into the Galisteo Basin. This results from assumptions that Galisteo Black-on-white and Mesa Verde Black-on-white defined for the Northern San Juan Basin display strong technological and stylistic similarities that imply a direct connection between the two types (Abel 1955; Habicht Mauche 1993; Stalling and Stubbs 1993). Similarities proposed for these widely separated types include the use of sherd and volcanic rock temper, thick crazed slips, square rims, and similar designs (Stalling and Stubbs 1953). Thus, the characterization of Galisteo as having appeared suddenly in the Rio Grande just after A.D. 1300 has further been interpreted as reflecting influence of migrants from the Mesa Verde region (Stubbs and Stalling 1953; Habichit Mauche 1993). An alternative to this scenario is that paste similarities between Mesa Verde Black-on-white from sites in the San Juan Basin and Galisteo Black-on-white actually reflect the mutual use of low-iron clays derived from shale outcrops associated with Mesa Verde and Morrison formations that occur much of the Northern San Juan region but for the Northern Rio Grande country are largely limited to the Galisteo Basin (Wilson 2008; Wiseman 2014).

The classic variety of Galisteo Black-on-white is characterized by white pastes that contrast markedly with the darker Santa Fe pastes. Temper is generally described as crushed sherd that is sometimes associated with coarse gray to black angular fragments although a wide variety of lithic and mineral inclusions have been noted (Habicht-Mauche 1993; Wilson 2008). Surfaces are often described as covered by a well-polished slip that often has fine crazing or crackling. Organic-painted designs can appear on both interior and exterior surfaces. Designs are usually organized in paneled bands of oblique and horizontal solids, oriented from multiple or single framing lines.


Design elements of both solid and hatched elements may be present but are uncommon. Motifs commonly include triangles, keys, lines, and geometric figures. In some assemblages squared rims may be relatively common. Rims are sometimes ticked, but are usually undecorated. Classic design styles on Galisteo are sometimes characterized as having derived from McElmo and Mesa Verde Black-on-white types (Mera 1935; Lang 1982), although there are definite differences in the range of styles and treatments occurring in these regional types. While Galisteo Black-on-white has sometimes been dated between A.D. 1300 to 1400 (Wiseman 2014), given the wide range of types associated with Galisteo Black-on-white, a longer span sometime between A.D. 1250 to 1425 seems to be indicated (Lang 1993; Wilson 2008).

References:
Abel, Leland J.
1955 San Juan Red Ware, Mesa Verde Gray Ware, Mesa Verde White Ware and San Juan White Ware, Pottery Types of the Southwest: Wares 5A, 10A, 10B, 12A. Museum of Northern Arizona Ceramic Series 3B, Flagstaff.

Barkwill Love, Lori and Leslie Cohen
2011 Late Coalition Ceramics from the Galisteo Basin. In Burnt Corn Pueblo; Conflict and Conflagration in Galisteo Basin A.D. 1250-1325, edited by James E. Snead and Mark W. Allen, pp. 21- 36. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Kidder, Alfred V., and Charles A. Amsden
1931 The Pottery of Pecos, Volume I, The Dull-Paint Wares. Papers of the Southwestern Expedition, no. 5, Yale University Press, New Haven.

Habicht-Mauche, Judith A.
1993 The Pottery from Arroyo Hondo Pueblo, New Mexico: Tribalization and Trade in the Northern Rio Grande. Arroyo Hondo Archaeological Series Vol. 8. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Kidder, Alfred V., and Charles A. Amsden
1931 The Pottery of Pecos, Volume I, The Dull-Paint Wares. Papers of the Southwestern Expedition, No. 5, Yale University Press, New Haven.

Lang, Richard W.
1982 Transformation in White Ware Pottery of the Rio Grande. In Southwestern Ceramics: A Comparative Review, edited by A. Schroeder, pp. 153–200. Arizona Archaeologist No. 15, Phoenix.

1993 Analysis and Serration of Stratigraphic Ceramic Samples from Arroyo Hondo Pueblo. In The Pottery from Arroyo Hondo Pueblo,New Mexico: Tribalization and Trade in the Northern Rio Grande, by J. A. Habicht-Mauche, pp. 166–181. Arroyo Hondo Archaeological Series Vol. 8. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, New Mexico

Mera, H. P.
1935 Ceramic Clues to the Prehistory of North Central New Mexico. Laboratory of Anthropology Technical Series Bulletin No. 8. Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Stubbs, Stanley A., and W. S. Stallings, Jr.
1953 The Excavation of Pindi Pueblo, New Mexico. Monographs of the School of American Research and the Laboratory of Anthropology No. 18, Santa Fe.

Wilson, C. Dean

2008 Examination of Trends for Galisteo Black-on-white. In Chasing Chaco Canyon and the Southwest: Papers in Honor of Frances Joan Mathien, edited by R. N. Wiseman, T. C. O’Laughlin, C. T. Snow, and C. Travis, pp 207-215. Papers of the Archaeological Society of New Mexico 34, Albuquerque.

2011 Analysis of Pottery Recovered from Prehistoric Contexts. In Ogapogeh, the White Shell Water Place: The Prehistoric Component at El Pueblo de Santa Fe (LA 1051), by S. L. Lentz, pp. 187–224. Archaeology Notes 438. Office of Archaeological Studies, Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe.

Wilson, Gordon P.
2007 Guide to Ceramic Identification: Northen Rio Grande Valley and Galisteo Basin to A.D. 1700. Technical Series Bulletin, no. 12, 2nd ed. Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe.

Wiseman Regge N.
2014 Introduction to Mera’s “Ceramic Clues to the Prehistory of North Central New Mexico. In Since Mera: The Original Eleven Bulletins, With Essays and Opinions Derived from Recent Research, edited by E. J Brown, R. N. Wiseman and Rory P. Gauthier, pp 197-223. Archaeological Society of New Mexico, Albuquerque.





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