Ancestral Pueblo: Southern Colorado Plateau (Anasazi)Eastern (Mountain) AnasaziGallinaGallina White WareGallina Black-on-white

Type Name: Gallina Black-on-white

Period: 1050 A.D. - 1300 A.D.
Culture: Ancestral Pueblo: Southern Colorado Plateau (Anasazi)
Branch: Eastern (Mountain) Anasazi
Tradition: Gallina
Ware: Gallina White Ware


First posted by C. Dean Wilson 2012

Gallina Black-on-white was defined by Mera (1935). This type refers to the very distinct white wares from sites in the Gallina region along the Upper Chama Valley and Gallina Mountains (Fiero 1978; Hawley 1988; Hibben 1948; Seaman 1976). This type appears to have been part of a long sequence of development in mountainous areas in north-central New Mexico. Types included in this sequence of development include Rosa Black-on-white, then Bancos Black-on-white, and then Gallina Black-on-white (Wilson and Blinman 1993). Gallina Black-on-white is still poorly dated although a span from A.D. 1050 to 1300 is often assumed (Anchuetz 2006) although a shorter span beginning at about A.D. 1200 has been recently postulated (Bremer and Burns 2013).

Pastes noted for Gallina Black-on-white tend to be white to gray in color, and may contain a distinct core. Tempering material for the majority of examples assigned to this type consists of large to moderately sized grains representing sand and crushed rock, although a low frequency of sherds are self-tempered, and others contain sherd and sand and ash temper. Both jar and bowl forms are fairly common. Gallina Black-on-white is usually smoothed, and may be unpolished or slightly polished, but is seldom slipped. The surface of Gallina Black-on-white vessels is often bumpy and striations similar to those described for Gallina Gray may be present.

Decorations are executed in organic paint and are often faded and gray in color. Designs are usually simple and poorly executed particularly when compared to contemporaneous types found in other Anasazi regions. Motifs may be oriented in simple banded or allover patterns. Designs are usually crudely executed, consisting of wavering and poorly joined lines and unaligned elements (Fiero 1978). The simplicity of the execution and patterns is often reminiscent of earlier types although later motifs or layouts may be represented. Designs are often organized in bold single motif. Framing lines are sometimes present but motifs began directly at the rim. The most common design motifs include parallel and intersecting lines, although triangle, connected triangles forming an hour glass pattern, checkered squares, and bold and widely spaced hachured or cross-hachure may be present. Rims are usually rounded or tapered and undecorated.

References:
Ancshuetz, Kurt F.
2006 The Jemez Mountain Subdivision. In a Study of Pre-Columbian and Historic Uses of the Santa Fe National Forest: Competition and Alliance in the Northern Rio Grande: The Archaeological and Historic Cultural Resources, edited by Cherie Scheick, pp.235-269. Southwestern Region Report No. 18 U.S. Forest Service, Albuquerque.

Bremer, J. Michael and Denver Burns
2013 Living It Up: Upland Adaptation and High-Altitude Occupation by Ancestral Pueblo People During the Gallina Phase Along the Continental Divide. In From Mountaintop to Valley Bottom; Understanding Past Land Use in the Northern Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico, edited by Bradley J. Vierra, pp. 113-130. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

Fiero, Kathaleen
1978 Archaeological Investigations at LA 11850: A Gallina Phase Village on the Continental Divide Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Laboratory of Anthropology No. 11F, Santa Fe.

Hawley Ellis, Florence
1988 From Drought to Drought; Gallina Culture Patterns. Sunstone Press, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Hibben, Frank
1949 The Pottery of the Gallina Complex. American Antiquity 14(3):194-202.

Mera, H. P.
1935 Ceramic Clues to the Prehistory of North Central New Mexico. Technical Series Bulletin No. 8, Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe.

Seaman, Timothy J.
1976 Excavation of LA 11843: An Early Stockaded Settlement of the Gallina phase. Laboratory of Anthropology Note N. 111g, Santa Fe.

Wilson, C. Dean, and Eric Blinman
1993 Upper San Juan Ceramic Typology. Office of Archaeological Studies Archaeology Notes 80, Santa Fe.

Wiseman, Regge N.
2014 Introduction to Mera’s “Ceramic Clues to the Prehistory of North Central New Mexico. In Since Mera: The Original Eleven Bulletins, With Essays and Opinions Derived from Recent Research, edited by E. J Brown, R. N. Wiseman and Rory P. Gauthier, pp 197-223. Archaeological Society of New Mexico, Albuquerque




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Gallina Black-on-white bowl

Gallina Black-on-white bowl

Gallina Black-on-white bowl

Gallina Black-on-white bowl

Gallina Black-on-white bowl

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Gallina Black-on-white bowl

Gallina Black-on-white bowl

Gallina Black-on-white bowl

Gallina Black-on-white effigy

Gallina Black-on-white effigy

Gallina Black-on-white jar

(Misfired) Gallina Black-on-white jar

Gallina Black-on-white jar

Gallina Black-on-white jar

Gallina Black-on-white olla

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