Ancestral Pueblo: Southern Colorado Plateau (Anasazi)Central AnasaziChaco and CibolaChaco-Cibola White WareGallup Black-on-white

Type Name: Gallup Black-on-white

Period: 980 A.D. - 1150 A.D.
Culture: Ancestral Pueblo: Southern Colorado Plateau (Anasazi)
Branch: Central Anasazi
Tradition: Chaco and Cibola
Ware: Chaco-Cibola White Ware


First posted by Dean Wilson 2012

Gallup Black-on-white was named and described by Hawley (1934; 1936). This type is assigned to sherds or vessels that may exhibit washy slips, sherd and or sand temper, and light colored pastes characteristic of types produced in the Cibola region during the Pueblo II period and hachured designs (Gladwin 1945; Hays-Gilpin and Van Hartesveldt; Windes 1977; Windes and McKenna 1989; Toll and McKenna 1987). Examples assigned to the Puerco Valley variety of this type exhibit porous gray, dark gray or gray-brown pastes indicative of the use of high iron clays and abundant sherd temper. Contemporaneous types defined for other regions, that may be decorated with similar hachured designsm include Dogoszshi Black-on-white, and in part Mancos Black-on-white, Kwahe'e Black-on-white, and Taos Black-on-white.

Hatching commonly consists of thin evenly spaced lines that usually exhibit angular hatching across one framing line to the next. Designs may consist of broad hatched triangles or pendants that cover most of the vessel. These pendants are spaced so that they create negative space similar in thickness across the vessel. Other hachured elements may include even spaced or hachured triangles. Pendants or banded designs are often organize in rectilinear straight or scrolled shaped ribbons. For pottery produced in some areas, the hachures are wider spaced in earlier forms with later forms exhibiting similar distance between lines as the thickness of lines. The framing lines are usually the same width as hachured lines although they may be slightly wider in some cases. Hatched lines may sometimes become progressively more closely spaced though time and oblique in relation to framing lines. Sometimes hatched bands from square areas filled with solid lines that do not interact as is the case for Reserve Black-on-white. Line width varies from about 2 mm to 4 mm but tend to be uniform with a given design. Design fields also become more filled through time resulting in similar negative and hatched designs. Surfaces are variable, but slightly polished surfaces with a thin streaky white slip are common. Vessel forms include bowls and a range of jar forms including pitchers.

Gallup Black-on-white is common in assemblages dating during most of the Pueblo II periods, and it is likely that forms assigned to this type were produced from middle tenth to middle twelfth century. Cibola white forms with widely spaced hachure from the Chaco Canyon area are commonly associated with Red Mesa Black-on-white, and thus early forms with widely spaced hachure are sometimes assigned to this type (Toll and McKenna 1987). Others have assigned hachured formswith widely spaced hachure to Gallup Black-on-white (Gilipin Hays and van Hartsveldt) and may reflect the continuation of widely more spaced hatching at late Pueblo II sites in areas of the Cibola region located farther away from Chaco Canyon. In assemblages dating to the early twelfth century, Gallup Black-on-white may occur with Chaco-McElmo Black-on-white.

References:
Gladwin, Harold S.
1945 The Chaco Branch: Excavation at White Mound and in the Red Mesa Valley. Medallion Papers 33, a Pueblo, Globe.

Hawley, Florence M.
1934 The Significance of Dated Prehistory of Chetro Ketl, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. University of New Mexico Bulletin 1, Albuquerque.

1936 Field Manual of Prehistoric Southwestern Pottery Types. The University of new Mexico Bulletin No. 291, Anthropological Series 1(4), Albuquerque.

Hays-Gilpin, Kelley., and Eric van Hartesveldt
1998 Prehistoric Ceramics of the Puerco Valley: The 1995 Chambers-Sanders Trust Lands Ceramic Conference. Museum of Northern Arizona Ceramic Series No.7. The Museum of Northern Arizona Flagstaff.

Toll H., Wolcott, and Peter J. McKenna
1987 The Ceramography of Pueblo Alto. In Investigations at the Pueblo Alto Complex, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, 1975-1978: Volume III, Part 1: Artifactual and Biological Analysis, edited by F. J. Mathien and T. C. Windes, 19-230. Publications in Archaeology 18 F, Chaco Canyon Series, National Park Service, Santa Fe.

Windes, Thomas C.
1977 Typology and Technology of Anasazi ceramics. In Settlement and Subsistence Along the Lower Chaco River, edited by C. Reher, pp. 270-369. University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

Windes, Thomas C., and Peter J. McKenna
1989 Cibola White Ware and Cibola Grayware: The Chaco Series. Paper presented for the New Mexico Archaeological Council Ceramics Workshop, Northwestern New Mexico Region, Ms. On file, National Park Service, Santa Fe.

Toll H., Wolcott, and Peter J. McKenna
1987 The Ceramography of Pueblo Alto. In Investigations at the Pueblo Alto Complex, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, 1975-1978: Volume III, Part 1: Artifactual and Biological Analysis, edited by F. J. Mathien and T. C. Windes, pp. 19-230. Publications in Archaeology 18 F, Chaco Canyon Series, National Park Service, Santa Fe.

Windes, Thomas C.
1977 Typology and Technology of Anasazi Ceramics. In Settlement and Subsistence Along the Lower Chaco River, edited by Charles Reher, pp. 270-369. University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

Windes, Thomas C., and Peter J. McKenna
1989 Cibola White Ware and Cibola Grayware: The Chaco Series. Paper presented for the New Mexico Archaeological Council Ceramics Workshop, Northwestern New Mexico Region, Ms. On file, National Park Service, Santa Fe.




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Gallup Black-on-white sherds

Gallup Black-on-white olla

Gallup Black-on-white shaped jar sherd

Gallup Black-on-white bowl

Gallup Black-on-white pitcher

Gallup Black-on-white bowl sherds

Gallup Black-on-white seed jar